C4 | Modulating to distant keys / the lied
How to modulate to distant keys?
- Related keys are the ones that are one sharp or one flat away from each other. Usually, these are the dominant and sub-dominant keys.
- Distant keys are the ones which are further away in the key chain, e.g. from C major to A♭ major.
- Although the structures of the Classical period rely on functional harmony (harmony or keys that define a new section, e.g. second subject in Sonata Form), many composers started to modulate to more distant keys in order to create contrasts.
- The song Widmung by Robert Schumann is in ternary form or ABA, with the middle section contrasting in many ways.
- Section B modulates from A♭ major to E major – a very distant key. Look at the process:
enharmonic change from A♭ to G#
E major, with G# being the MIDDLE note of the new TRIAD
A German word meaning art-song with the words, melody and accompaniment all linking together (plural: lieder). They usually have German lyrics and are usually linked to the German or Austrian composers such as Schubert, Schumann, Wolf and Brahms. The French equivalent is the Mélodie.