Fig. 5

* Diminished 7th chord: the diminished vii chord is closely related to the V chord, in fact it is possible to hear it as an extension of chord V. As a result, you can harmonise it as part of a Vb9 chord (in C minor – G-B-D-F-A).

Consider Mozart’s use of rhythm in the opening of his Sonata. Both phrases are effectively balanced beginning with a minim and 4 crotchets, and ending with a descending interval (downward leap) with crotchet rhythms.